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2nd International Conference on Digital Pathology, will be organized around the theme “”
Digital Pathology 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Digital Pathology 2017
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To formulate medical decisions, healthcare experts require that all essential information is both are accurate and easily accessible. Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology discus about the use of information technology that supports the formation and distribution or exchange of information, including metadata and images, throughout the complex workflow monitored in an Anatomic Pathology department from specimen reception to report transmission and exploitation. Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology is supported by standardization efforts towards interoperability and knowledge representation for shareable and computable clinical information. Digital Pathology expands the limits of microscopy, enabling students, educators, researchers, and clinicians to contribute tissue samples. Images transmitted or shared over the Internet or through specific analysis software open the path to a modern and exciting microscopy tool. Digital Pathology excludes some of the issues associated with sharing slides such as the degeneration of samples and inability to share samples of live cells. Benefits include: Diagnostics – a hospital can transmit images anywhere in the world, probably decreasing the time it takes to accordingly diagnose and treat a pathogen. Education – colleges and universities can approach an enormous database of samples, via on-line or through a web database, saving fund on histological slides; students and professors will also have the capability to study images of live and dead cells Finances – savings can be establish from decreasing or eliminating purchases of glass slides, cover-slips, adhesives and dyes as well as the cost to conserve and send pathology exhibit to colleagues or institutions
- Track 1-1Bone Pathology
- Track 1-2Benefits and future development of digital pathology
- Track 1-3Quality control and improvements
- Track 1-4Digital pathology project updates
- Track 1-5Technology advances in digital pathology
- Track 1-6Standardization in digital pathology
- Track 1-7Converting to/ integration of the pathology
- Track 1-8Implications on pathology practice
- Track 1-9Algorithm development
Pathology Informatics concentrates on the management and analysis of clinical and research pathology data using modern computing, communications and digital imaging methods. The Division of Pathology Informatics has grown to a nationally acknowledged informatics organization at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) prepares pathologists grows to be leaders in the development and application of informatics in educational, industry and/or community practice settings. Sharing digital pathology images for firm wide use into a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is not yet extensively adopted. We share our solution and 3-year experience of broadcasting such images to an Enterprise Image Server (EIS). A computerized picture archiving and communications system (PACS) has been successfully used in the stream of radiology for storage, rapid retrieval, and widespread access to digital images. Digital images can be captured using multiple modalities and many PACS users at different sites can have at the same time, remote access to images. Both computerized images and reports can be transmitted digitally via PACS. Whole slide imaging (WSI), also indicated to as "virtual" or wide-field microscopy, associate with digitization of glass slides, which resembles light microscopy (i.e. "digital slides"). WSI produces high-resolution digital images and associates with relatively high speed digitization of glass slides of different samples (e.g. tissue sections, smears), scanning them at various magnifications and focal planes (x, y and z axes). Compared to immovable (still) and live (usually robotic) digital images, WSI is commonly more beneficial for educational purposes.
- Track 2-1Acquisitions, processing, archiving and retrieval of WSI
- Track 2-2Access through mobile devices
- Track 2-3Cloud computing
- Track 2-4Access through mobile devices
- Track 2-5Pathology PACS
- Track 2-6Automation
- Track 2-7Improving WSI workflow efficiency
A digital image composed of pixels performs an analog image transformed to numerical form using ones and zeros (binary) so that it can be stored and used in a computer system. The digital imaging process consists of four key steps: image acquisition (capture), storage and management (saving), manipulation and annotation (editing), and viewing, display or transmission (sharing) of images. Before digital images become extensively used for periodic clinical work, standards are needed and the entire imaging process approved. For example, when six practicing pathologists were asked to all photographs the same section on a glass slide with similar microscopes that had the same associated digital cameras, they all produce dissimilar images. Moreover, global manipulation (e.g. contrast enhancement) of Papanicolaou test digital images has been shown to significantly change their interpretation. We also need to pay more consideration to the digital pathology diagnosing station (cockpit) to that they integrate computers with appropriate performance and graphics cards, screens with exceptional image resolution and color quality, as well as connectivity to the Internet, laboratory information system (LIS) and electronic medical record (EMR). The use of computer monitors for digital pathology should, possibly, employ a Macbeth color manager (array of color squares) or correspondent to guarantee precise color balance once a digital image has been developed, computer applications can be leveraged to evaluate the information they hold. More than a few algorithms have been developed (e.g. pattern recognition algorithms) that potential to increase accuracy, reliability, specificity, and productivity. For example, computer assisted image analysis (CAIA) has been used to score (quantify) certain immunohistochemical stains (e.g. ER, PR and HER-2/neu breast biomarkers). In this manner, CAIA gives all pathologists the similar yardstick for scoring immunohistochemistry results in Breast cancer cases. This quantitative method to tissue analysis using WSI has been stated to as "slide-based histocytometry". Multispectral image analysis is additional emerging device that exploits both spatial and spectral image statistics to classify images. This computerized technology has already been shown to be important in certain clinical settings (e.g. cytopathology) to help distinguish and classify morphologically similar lesions.
- Track 3-1Analysis software
- Track 3-2Challenges in image analysis
- Track 3-3Quantitative image analysis research
- Track 3-4Visualization methods for diagnosis
- Track 3-5Annotation tools
- Track 3-6Pattern recognition
- Track 3-7Automated image analysis
Prior to slide digitization, skilled pathologists examined clinical trial data to determine evidence of disease and diagnose disease by reviewing glass specimen slides utilizing microscopes. To acquire interpretations, more than a few sets of slides were arranged from each patient’s tissue block, each slide comprising a different level of tissue, and shipped to reviewers. As a result of the alteration in tissue levels, variability in inter-reader interpretations of specimens was improved. Digital pathology decreases such variability by providing reviewers with matching digital images of patients’ tissue. The field of digital pathology has exploded and is now regarded as one of the most promising avenues of diagnostic medicine in order to attain even better, faster and inexpensive diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of cancer and other significant diseases. Digital pathology and the implementation of image analysis have grown rapidly in the last few years. This is mostly due to the implementation of whole slide scanning, improvements in software and computer processing capacity and the increasing position of tissue-based research for biomarker discovery and stratified medicine. This review sets out the key application regions for digital pathology and image analysis, with a particular emphasis on research and biomarker discovery. Digital pathology and image analysis have significant roles across the drug/companion diagnostic improvement pipeline including biobanking, molecular pathology, tissue microarray analysis, molecular profiling of tissue and these significant developments are reviewed. Underpinning all of these significant developments is the necessity for high quality tissue samples and the effect of pre-analytical variables on tissue research is discussed. This requirement is merged with practical advice on setting up and running a digital pathology laboratory.
- Track 4-1Clinical trials
- Track 4-2Diagnosis
- Track 4-3Diagnostics
- Track 4-4Biomarker analysis /research / quantification
- Track 4-5Tissue based research / imaging
- Track 4-6Biobanking
- Track 4-7Precision / personalized medicine
Digital pathology can be considered as an adjunct to traditional microscopy. In traditional microscopy, we require a microscope to view the glass slide. We can only view one slide, one field of view, and one exaggeration at a time. If we want to do any sort of analysis with a microscope, we have to remember the information from each field of view. For example, if we want to associate two slides, we have to look at one slide, store the information in our brain bank, look at the slide, and try to remember the one we looked at prior to make a comparison. In digital pathology, we have the benefit of doing things different way. We can view some digital slides on a computer monitor. We can combine them side-by-side if we want to calculate the entire cells or calculate protein expression; these can be done easily by computer software that can be seen on an image file and it is called a digital slide. In case of traditional microscopy, if we want to transfer the data with someone in a distant place, the slide has to be mailed. But with digital pathology, we can transmit the data with anyone in the world directly. It is also comparatively very easy to integrate a digital pathology system into a laboratory data system. Digital pathology can support the monitoring and consolidation of different sources of information required for pathological purposes to do work more proficiently and innovatively.
Digital pathology is extensively more than whole slide imaging (WSI); it has data security and creates an environment for handling data that consists of multi-gigabyte images that are merged. It also comprises integration of the digital pathology data management system with autostainers, converslippers, and the laboratory management system. It comprises the following elements. Conventional glass slides are converted to digital slides using a scanning device. Digital slide scanners are considered as successors of early telepathology systems that facilitated the transfer of static and dynamic images via computer networks for remote consultation and second opinion. Digital slides are accessible for viewing through computer system and viewing software either locally or remotely via the Internet. Digital slides viewers can show an overview image, along with high-power view, enabling better orientation. Showing two or more slides side-by-side is a characteristics of many slide viewers, which can be useful for analyze the same tissue contaminate with different stainings. Digital slides are sustained in an information management system that permits archival and intelligent retrieval. Educational and examination slides end up in the constant storage where they are kept without an invalidating time frame. Object-based storage offers overall redundancy of stored objects without the necessity to take incremental backups. Digital slides are maintained in a data management system that allows for archival and intelligent retrieval. Image examination tools are used to derive objective quantification procedures from digital slides. Pattern recognition and visual search tools are used to categorize specimen imagery and discover medically significant regions of digital slides. Digital pathology workflow is integrated into the institution's overall operational background. Digital pathology also permits internet information transmitting for education, diagnostics, publication and research.
- Track 6-1Scanner
- Track 6-2Slide viewer
- Track 6-3Storage
- Track 6-4Manage
- Track 6-5Analyze
- Track 6-6Integrate
- Track 6-7Sharing
Currently, the standard Digital pathology workflow begins with the procedure performed on the patient, most commonly a biopsy or a resection. The material is then sent to a pathology division associated by an order (ideally in a digital way), along with appropriate clinical information. This information regularly comes out of the local electronic health records, simultaneously with localization and clinical information of the material. When the material is received in the pathology department, it is registered in the local laboratory information system before undergoing the necessary procedure in order to be managed to glass slides. Then, the glass slides are observed under a light microscope in order to create the pathology report. Switching the current workflow to a fully digital one would require glass slides to be scanned prior to sending them to pathologists, which can add cumulatively to the overall diagnosis time. This can be concentrated by using speed scanners and integrating the scanning with the cover slipping and staining method. Thus, digital pathology workflow is incorporated into the institution overall operational environment.
Many articles are being published regarding its use in routine pathologic diagnosis. Validation of a WSI system for primary diagnosis in surgical pathology has been studied. Even the concordance between digital pathology and light microscopy in general surgical pathology has been studied in a pilot study of 100 cases, and it was found that digital pathology is a safe and viable method of making a primary histological diagnosis. Digital pathology is being increasingly tried in the interpretation of immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers. Interpretation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) immunohistochemical expressions with unaided as well as computer-aided digital microscopy as well has been documented. Digital pathology has penetrated classrooms, especially pathology teachings. It can effectively replace the traditional methods of learning pathology by providing mobility and convenience to medical students.
- Track 8-1Surgical pathology
- Track 8-2Immunohistochemistry
- Track 8-3Teaching program
During the last decade pathology has promoted from the quick progress of image digitizing technology. The development in this technology had led to the formation of slide scanners which are incapable to produce whole slide images (WSI) which can be discovered by image viewers in a way comparable to the conventional microscope. The file size of the WSI varies from a few megabytes to several gigabytes, leading to contests in the area of image storage and management when they will be used regularly in daily clinical practice. Digital slides are used in pathology for education, diagnostic purpose (clinicopathological meetings, consultations, revisions, slide panels and, increasingly, for direct clinical diagnostics) and archiving. As an alternative to conservative slides, WSI are usually well accepted, especially in education, where they are obtainable to a large number of students with the full possibilities of annotations without the problem of difference between serial sections. Image processing techniques can also be functional to WSI, providing pathologists with tools assisting in the diagnosis-making procedure.
Dermatopathology is a subspecialty of both pathology and dermatology in which adequate clinical info is essential to a valid tissue diagnosis. Dermatopathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology that emphases on the skin and the rest of the integumentary system as an organ. It is unique, in that there are two paths a physician can take to obtain the specialization. All general pathologists and general dermatologists train in the pathology of the skin, so the term dermatopathologist denotes either of these who has reached a certainly level accreditation and experience. Dermatologists are able to recognize most skin diseases based on their appearances, anatomic distributions, and behavior. Sometimes, however, those criteria do not lead to a conclusive diagnosis, and a skin biopsy is taken to be examined under the microscope using usual histological tests. In some cases, additional specialized testing needs to be performed on biopsies, including immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, electronmicroscopy, flow cytometry, and molecular-pathologic analysis.
- Track 10-1Dermatomyositis
- Track 10-2Virtual Dermatopathology
- Track 10-3Reactive Erythemas
- Track 10-4Eczema
- Track 10-5Digital Skin Cancer and Screening
- Track 10-6Psoriasis
- Track 10-7Basal Cell Carcinoma
- Track 10-8Squamous cell Carcinoma
- Track 10-9Vitiligo